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El nomadismo : vagabundos iniciáticos
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Isn’t it amazing that a simple method of sun-gazing (during safe hours) can restore Hira Ratan Manek or HRM continues to live only on sun energy and water. We have a super computer in our bodies given to us by Nature, which is our brain . HRM (Hira Ratan Manek) calls it the “brainutor”. The brain is. According to India’s Hira Ratan Manek (HRM) sun gazing can apparently balance emotions within the first 3 months (up to 15 minutes) of practising, and heals.
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Do not engage in sungazing practices without proper training and medical supervision. Permanent eye injury and blindness may occur. Do not attempt to change your diet and live on sunlight or water alone. Before attempting any radical spiritual or dietary practice, seek qualified medical advice and spiritual supervision.
The Ancient Technique of Sun Gazing – Bridget Edwards
Ever wanted to be in more than one place at a time? Many proponents of this ancient technique, used by many cultures such as Mayan, Egyptian, Aztec, Tibetan and Indian yoga, report not only healing benefits to common illnesses, but obtaining super-human abilities such as advanced telepathy and going gzzing without the need for food. Sun gazing also known as sun-eating is a strict practice of gradually introducing sunlight into your eyes at the lowest ultraviolet-index times of day — sunrise and sunset.
Those who teach the practice say there are several rules to the practice. First, it must be done within the hour after sunrise or before sunset to avoid damaging the eyes.
It is important to only look at the sun when it is orange or red according to the ancients.
Looking at the sun when it is yellow or white, or uncomfortable in any way is not recommended. Second, you must be barefoot, in contact with the actual earth — sand, dirt or mud; and finally, you must begin with only 10 seconds the first day, increasing by 10 second intervals each day you practice. Following these rules make the practice safe, says sources. He has been practicing sun gazing for the past 12 years and has largely subsisted off solar energy since he began.
Others have reported losing the need for food after only 9 months of sun gazing by which time the practitioner has worked up to a maximum of 44 minutes. After 9 months of practice, you need only walk barefoot on the earth for 45 minutes per day, 6 days in a row to further the process of what has been initiated by sun gazing.
NASA confirmed that he was indeed able to survive largely on light with occasionally a small amount of buttermilk or water during this time. During your first 3 months of practice, the suns energy is moving through the eyes and charging the hypothalamus tract, says those who have studied this technique and used it. Brenard, the leading authority on the pineal gland. Furthermore, the pineal gland was expanding and not shrinking which is typically what happens after mid fifties and its maximum average size is about 6 x 6 mm, however for HRM, it has been measured to be at 8 x 11 mm.
The hypothalamus tract is the pathway to the rear of the retina which leads to the brain. The brain then, over time, becomes activated by the sub supply being received by the sun. You will first experience a relief of emthod tension and worry, mehtod most worry is fueled by the energy received by the foods we eat.
Though hunger is said to eventually cease, it is fine to continue eating regularly during initial stages, until appetite disappears naturally. Another benefit early on is said to be an increase in confidence and an ability to easily solve your problems, as you are without tension.
Everyone has at least a bit of psychosis, but during the first few months of sun gazing practice, it is reported that these attitudes go away and a positive nature gracefully replaces the old persona full of fears.
They say that by the time one is gazing 30 minutes per day building up 10 nethod per day all the colors of the sun will have reached the brain.
Sun-gazing: Why You Should Be Doing It!
Color therapists attribute their healing of certain diseases to flooding the body and brain with the particular color that is lacking — depending on the ailment. For example, in liver disease, the color green is deficient. The kidneys need red, and the heart, yellow.
All of the mtehod and all of the systems are said to respond to different colors of the rainbow, which is why it is also recommended to eat a diet rich in a variety of colors.
It is recommended during the month period that you use autosuggestion to see your body already healed of any snu weakness or disease.
As you continue the process, it is reported that after 6 months, the energy stored from the technique is no longer being used for repairing the body or the mind and can move now into supporting you in gaining more super-human abilities. How can the body take in sunlight in such a manner as to sustain life? Let us examine a possible method. There is a pathway from the retina, to the hypothalamus, called the retino-hypothalamic tract.
From the SCN, impulses along the nerve travel via the pineal nerve Sympathetic nervous system to the pineal gland. These impulses inhibit the production of melatonin. When these impulses stop at night or in dark, when the light no longer stimulates the hypothalamus pineal inhibition ceases, and melatonin is released. The pineal gland is therefore a photosensitive organ and an important timekeeper for the human body.
The unexplored process of energy absorption, transformation, and processing from the Sun may occur here. The activation of pineal gland is a key step in psychic, spiritual and energy transformation processes. Suffice it to say that in this gland, energy processing and distribution can take place.
The pineal gland is the subtle controller of all endocrine glands, therefore controlling the endocrine system. Through secretion of melatonin, it also regulates the circadian rhythm, sleep wake cycle and it also slows down aging process.
It has psychic properties and it is said to be the seat of soul or mind. Sunlight may enter the eyes and be directly stored in the pineal gland. Pineal activation and charging through solar energy could be a vital step in higher evolution.
Once activated and charged by the Pineal gland, Solar Energetic factors may be transformed into electrical, magnetic or chemical energies in body.
If the initial processing of this energy starts in the pineal gland, how does it get to the rest of the body? By seven and a half months of gazing, now at 35 minutes, need and desire for food is dwindling. By 9 months, all taste for food, including aroma, all hunger pains and cravings disappear. During this barefoot walking, the pineal gland is said to become activated.
Professional sun gazers and those researching the science say that each toe is connected to a specific gland, and by walking barefoot on the Earth, you activate these glands. The big toe is thought to be aligned with the pineal gland, the second toe with the pituitary, then the hypothalamus, thalamus and finally the pinky toe correlates to the amygdala. Walking barefoot, with the sun now falling on the top of your head, practitioners claim to create a sort of magnetic field in and around yazing body that recharges you and your brain.
Apparently this walking barefoot part is the most important aspect of the practice. As you continue walking on the Earth, this is when the magic really begins. The pineal gland is activated more and more by this walking procedure. Intellect is said to increase, along with memory. The pineal gland has navigational and psychic capabilities, meaning telepathy, the possibility of flight… now we are getting somewhere! Have you ever thought you would like to have your body in more than one place at a time?
Well, sun-gazing is said to be the magical key to such abilities. If you can barefoot walk 45 minutes every day for a year — you are golden. At that point, only a maintenance of days a week is necessary to maintain the capabilities you have gazig.
Doctors and eye care professionals caution against looking directly at the sun, saying that it will damage the retina. However, if done correctly, sun-gazing at the correct times of day, sunrise and sunset, studies show there is no risk of damaging the eyes.
NASA Confirms -Super Human Abilities Gained Through Sungazing | An Enlightened Perspective
Those who have been sun gazing for many years have had their eyes checked to show no damage, though it is advised that you have your eyes checked in the first few weeks of your practice, so you can know for yourself. After 90 days of accumulative gazing equaling 44 minutes, you cease the gazing and start the barefoot walking 45 minutes per day for 6 days. You will have to try it out and see for yourself. Stasia has graciously given permission to repost this material.
Mitchell Gibson is the author of The Enlightened Gzzing. Previous Next Do not engage in sungazing practices without proper training and medical supervision.
What is Sun Gazing? What happens to the body during Sun Gazing? By the end of 3 months, the gazing time will have increased to 15 minutes per day. At months of gazing, the studies show that physical diseases start to disappear.
This action will facilitate the process of returning to wholeness. How can we take in sunlight? For 6 days straight, one is to walk barefoot on the earth, 45 minutes per day. Are there any dangers? An Enlightened Perspective with Dr.
Product page for facsimile of Apicio, Apicio De Re Coquinaria Facsimile Apicio De re coquinaria: Tours, Francia, IX sec., Urb Lat Biblioteca. Apicius, De Re Coquinaria is a selection of Roman recipes, probably compiled in “Apicius – De Re Coquinaria”: Apicio – De Re Coquinaria facsimile edition. MARCUS GAVIUS APICIUS: DE RE COQUINARIA. The book I have is edited and translated from Latin by Robert Maier. My humble person only translated the.
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Hill, The text is in the public domain. This text has not yet been proofread. If you find a mistake though, please let me know! XFresh Ham and Chap. Sows were slaughtered before they had a litter, or were spayed for the purpose of obtaining the sterile womb. Crush pepper, lovage, with broth, pure wine, adding raisin wine to taste, thicken the sauce with roux and pour doquinaria over the roast.
Enjoy this with a brine sauce and mustard. Ficatumiecur suillum. Ficatum is the origin of the words for liver in several Romance languages: Italian fegatoSpanish higadoFrench foie.
According to the invention of Marcus Apicius, pigs were starved, and the hungry pigs were crammed with dry figs and then suddenly given all the mead they wanted to drink. The violent expansion of the figs in the stomachs, or the fermentation caused acute indigestion which killed the pigs. The livers cquinaria very much enlarged, similar to the cramming dr geese for the sake of obtaining abnormally large livers. This latter method prevailed in the Strassburg District until recently when it was prohibited by law.
I’ve been unable so far to confirm that the cramming of either geese or pigs was prohibited at any time in “the Strassburg District” — i. If you have solid information, drop me a line, of course! Stick figs into the liver by making apertures with the knife or with a needle. It is by no means clear that the liver is meant.
Out of the oven: De at the table: The result was delicious, however, as the flavor of the figs and of the liver were complementary. Ofellae ; apparently the old Roman “Hamburger Steak. Scrape it as thin as a skin and shape it. Crush pepper, lovage, cumin, carraway, silphium, one laurel berry, moistened apici broth; in a square dish place the meat balls and the spices where they remain coqujnaria pickling for two or three days, covered crosswise with twigs.
Then place them in the oven to be roastedwhen done take the finished meat balls out. Crush pepper, lovage, with the broth, add a little raisin wine to sweeten. Cook it, thicken with roux, immerse the balls in the sauce and serve.
The site of ruins only a little less spectacular than Pompeii’s, far less hot and crowded, and a short hour’s commuter train ride from downtown Rome. When done, retire, allow to drip and dry on the gridiron but apicioo that the meat does not harden. Crush pepper, lovage, rush, 1 cumin, adding broth and raisin wine to taste. Place the roulades with this sauce together in a sauce pan ; finish by braising.
When done, retire the roulades and dry them. Serve without the gravy sprinkled with pepper. If too fat remove the outer coquianria. Dumplings; but this formula appears to deal with boneless pork chops, pork roulades or ” filets mignons. When the cutlets are done marinated the pickle is placed on the fire and boiled; the cutlets are put back into this gravy and are finished with crushed pepper, spices, honey, broth, and roux.
When this is done serve the cutlets without the broth and oil, sprinkled with pepper. Aprugineo ; list Ofellae Aprugneaei. Next prepare the following: Summi ; list sumisi. To fry in water is not r.
V Choice Roasts Assaturae 1 1 Tor. De assaturae exquisitae apparatu.
Antique Roman Dishes – Collection
Roasting in the oven is not as desirable as roasting on the spit, universally practised during the middle ages. Coqunaria spit seems to have been unknown to the Romans. It is seldom used today, although we have improved it by turning it with electrical machinery. To me, this looks less like a sauce and more like a marinade, or even a rub, slightly moistened to make it stick.
Heat and bind with roux. Pour this over the roast that is medium coquinnaria, with salt; sprinkle qpicio pepper and serve. The neck piece itself, if you like, is also roasted with spices and the hot gravy is simply poured over at the moment of serving. Perhaps a typographical error for succum. Most of the ingredients are found in the Worcestershire sauce. It is inconceivable how this sauce can be white in color, but, as a condiment and if taken in small quantity, it has our full approval.
The sporadic discoveries of such very subtle and refined methods cf.
LacusCurtius • Apicius, De Re Coquinaria — Book VII
They simply used a greater variety of flavors and aromas than we do today, but there is no proof that spices were used excessively. The great variety of flavors at the disposal of the ancients speaks well for the refinement of the olfactory sense and the desire to bring variety into their fare. Stir well with satury and leeks 2 and tie with roux. Then fill it with the following dressing: Crush pepper, lovage, silphium, anise, ginger, a little rue; fill the paunch with it, not too much, though, leaving plenty of room for expansion lest it bursts while being cooked.
Put it in a pot with boiling water, retire and prick with a needle so that it does not burst. When half done, take it out and hang it into the smoke to take on color; now boil it over again and finish it leisurely.
Next take the broth, some pure wine and a little oil, open the paunch with a small knife. Sprinkle with the broth and lovage; place the pig near the fire to heat it, turn it around in bran or bread crumbs immerse in sprinkle with brine and finish the outer crust to a golden brown. Lister has this formula divided into two; Danneil and Schuch make three different formulas out of it.
The tenderloins are then rolled up to be roasted; tie together, wrap in caul, parboil in oil 2 and broth, and then roast in the oven or broil on the gridiron. Thereupon make dough crumbs of flour and oil 1 lay the dough over or around the ham, stud the top with the pieces of the skin so that they will be baked with the dough bake slowly and when done, retire from the oven and serve.
The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish. At any consequence we partook of a grand dish that no inmate of Olympus would have sneezed at. In Pompeii an inn-keeper had written the following on the wall of his establishment: Ubi perna cocta est si convivae apponitur non gustat pernam linguit ollam aut caccabum.
When we first beheld this message we took the inn-keeper for a humorist and a clever advertiser; but now we are convinced that he was in earnest when he said that his guests would lick the sauce pan in which his hams were cooked. When done skin, glaze the surface with a fire shovel full of glowing coals, spread honey over it, or, what’s better: When it has a nice color, put in a sauce pan raisin wine, pepper, a bunch of rue and pure wine to taste.
When this sauce is done, pour half of it over the ham and in the other half soak specially made ginger bread 3 The remnant of the sauce after most of it is thoroughly soaked into the bread, add to the ham. Properly perhaps, Petasonem ex mustaceis ; cf.
Plainly, we are dealing here with fresh, uncured ham. He has the three foregoing formulae thrown into one. Stew the liver in wine sauce, sprinkle with pepper and serve. The soaking of livers in milk is quite common; it removes the offensive taste of the gall. The fact that here attention is drawn to home-made sweet dishes may clear up the absence of regular baking and dessert formulae in Apicius.
The trade of the Dulciarius was so highly developed at that time that the professional bakers and confectioners supplied the entire home market with their wares, making it convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook to compete with their organized business, a condition which largely exists in our modern highly civilized centers of population today.
When saturated place in the oven to heat but not to dry out; when thoroughly hot retire from oven, pour over some honey, stipple the fruit so that the honey may penetrate, sprinkle with pepper 2 and serve. Aphros is not identified. Perhaps the term stood for Coquinarix Old English Aphricocks or some other African fruit or plant; Lister’s celery is to be rejected on gastronomical grounds.
The above treatment would correspond to that which is given apricots and peaches today. They are peeled, immersed in cream and sweetened with sugar. Apicius’ heating of the fruit in milk is new to us; it sounds good, for it has a tendency to parboil any hard fruit, make it more digestible and reduce the fluid to a creamy consistency.
This looks like a recipe for stewed or candied angelica to me; angelica of course belongs to the celery family, and candied angelica, far from being gastronomically unsuitable, is a frequent ingredient in the great classic French desserts. Piperatum is a xoquinaria prepared with pepper, any spicy dish; the term may here be applied to the bowl in which the porridge is served.
De re coquinaria. Libro de Marco Gavio Apicio. | Sutori
Thereupon spread it out on a pan and when cool cut it into handy pieces like small cookies. Fry these in the apiclo oil, take them out, dip into hot honey, sprinkle with pepper 2 and serve. When congealed sprinkle with pepper and serve. It must be borne in mind, however, that the ancient definition of “custard” is “egg cheese,” probably because of the similarity in appearance and texture. Place it in the oven to let it rise and when one side is done, turn it out into a service platter fold it pour over honey, sprinkle with pepper 3 and serve.
Mel caseum ; Tor. Served raw sliced, with the above dressing, or cooked. The dressing make thus: Sprinkle with pepper and serve. Wanting in the other texts.
Lunar orbit: Once Chandrayaan-1 is in its final circular polar orbit at a km altitude, a MIP (Moon Impact Probe) of 25 kg mass will be released and descend to. Chandrayaan-1 is an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) orbiter designed to test India’s technological capabilities and return scientific information . “We have been able to detect NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [LRO] and the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan
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This science mission represents a new dimension chhandrayan a true challenge in the Indian Space Program. Major science mission objectives are: Artist’s rendition of Chandrayaan-1 in lunar orbit image credit: Initial planning of the moon mission at ISRO started in A total payload mass of 10 kg, out of the planned 55 kg payload, were offered to the international scientific community.
Of the 16 international proposals received, 5 were selected for flight.
In SeptemberISRO announced a possible launch date of the Chandrayaan-1 mission for the fall or early An outcome of this conference was the establishment chandragan a Joint Working Hcandrayan to enhance the cooperation in civil space projects between India and USA. These chaandrayan commitments along with other operational services and collaborations make Chandrayaan-1 a truly international cooperative moon mission.
The spacecraft bus is a cube of 1. Electric power of W is provided chandraan a canted solar array which charges a Li-ion battery. A bipropellant propulsion system is used to transfer Chandrayaan-1 into lunar orbit and to maintain attitude. The spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized using attitude control thrusters and reaction wheels.
Attitude knowledge is provided by star sensors, accelerometers, and an inertial reference unit. Schematic view of the Chandrayaan spacecraft image credit: A data compression scheme is used both lossy and lossless to reduce the downlink volume. Overview of the communication link architecture for the Chandrayaan-1 mission image credit: Photo of the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft during integration image credit: Launch and launch sequence: Once Chandrayaan-1 is in its final circular polar orbit at a km altitude, a MIP Moon Impact Probe of 25 kg cyandrayan will be released and descend to the lunar surface in a hard landing mode.
The effect of the device’s impact will be used to analyze the chemical composition of the moon’s dust. Chandrayaan-1 was launched on 22 Oct. Ice Confirmed at the Moon’s Poles: In the darkest and coldest parts of its polar regions, a team of scientists has directly observed definitive evidence of water ice on the Moon’s surface.
NASA Rediscovers India’s Lost Chandrayaan-1. Here Is All You Should Know About India’s Lunar Probe
These ice deposits are patchily distributed and could possibly be ancient. At the southern chanddayan, most of the ice is concentrated at lunar craters, while the northern pole’s ice is more widely, but sparsely spread.
The image shows the chandrayna of surface ice at the Moon’s south pole left and north pole rightchsndrayan by NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument.
Blue represents the ice locations, plotted over an image of the lunar fhandrayan, where the gray scale corresponds to surface temperature darker representing colder areas and lighter shades indicating warmer zones. The ice is concentrated at the darkest and coldest locations, in the shadows of craters. This is the first time scientists have directly observed definitive evidence of water ice on the Moon’s surface image credit: It collected data that not only picked up the reflective properties we’d expect from ice, but was able to directly measure the distinctive way its molecules absorb infrared light, so it can differentiate between liquid water or vapor and solid ice.
Because of the very small tilt of the Moon’s rotation axis, sunlight never reaches these regions. A detailed study of a giant impact crater on the Moon’s far side could provide a roadmap for future lunar explorers.
The study, by planetary scientists from Brown University, maps the mineralogy of the SPA South Pole-Aitken basin, a gash in the lunar surface with a diameter of approximately 2, km. SPA is thought to be the oldest and largest impact basin on the Moon, and scientists have long had their eyes on it as a target for future lunar landers. Visiting SPA and grabbing a sample of that exposed mantle material could provide critical clues about the Moon’s origin and evolution.
A sample could also help scientists put a firm date on the impact. SPA is thought to be the Moon’s oldest basin, so a firm date would be a key milestone in the timeline of lunar history as well as events affecting early Earth.
At the bulleye’s center is a region of what appears to be deposits of volcanic material, a sign that the center of the basin may have been covered by a volcanic flow sometime soon after the SPA impact.
Chandrayaan-1 starts observations of the Moon / Space Science / Our Activities / ESA
That central region is surrounded by a ring of material dominated by magnesium-rich pyroxene, a mineral thought to be plentiful in the lunar mantle. Outside of that is a ring in which pyroxene mixes with the standard crustal rocks of the lunar highlands. Outside of that ring is the basin exterior, where the signatures of impact-related material disappear.
The research suggests, for example, that finding pristine mantle material in the middle of the basin might be a bit tricky because of the large volcanic deposit. Chandrayna we show that the middle of SPA chaandrayan been covered over by what looks like a volcanic flow. Their composition is a little different than that of other volcanic rocks found on the Moon, which suggests they have a unique origin. That would be really interesting to look at in more depth.
Another strategy could be to look for a spot where the volcanic material has been pierced by a subsequent impact. Moriarty and Pieters found several such craters in the volcanic patch where the pyroxene material has been re-excavated.
Moriarty is hopeful that these findings will give mission planners something to think about. China is currently in the process of planning for a mission to SPA. The region has appeared repeatedly on NASA’s ” decadal survey ” of planetary scientists, which is used to inform the agency’s mission priorities.
We think this work could provide a roadmap for exploring SPA in more detail. A new study shows four distinct compositional regions within and around the Moon’s largest impact basin.
The findings could help guide future exploration of the chandraysn image credit: Finding derelict spacecraft and space debris in Earth’s orbit can be a technological challenge. Detecting these objects in orbit around Earth’s moon is even more difficult. Optical telescopes are unable to search for small objects hidden in the bright glare of the moon.
However, a new technological application of interplanetary radar pioneered by scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, has successfully located spacecraft orbiting the moon — one active, and one dormant. This new technique could assist planners of future moon missions. Finding India’s Chandrayaan-1 required hcandrayan bit more detective work because the last contact with the spacecraft was in August of Although the interplanetary radar has been used to observe small asteroids several million miles from Earth, researchers were not certain that an object of this smaller size as far away as the moon could be detected, even with the world’s most powerful radars.
Chandrayaan-1 proved the perfect target for demonstrating the capability of this technique. The average police radar gun has an operational range of about 1.
Then the radar echoes bounced chandaryan from lunar orbit were received by the m Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia.
JPL’s orbital calculations indicated that Chandrayaan-1 is still circling some km above the lunar surface, but it was generally considered “lost. So, on July 2,the JPL team pointed Goldstone and Green Bank at a location about 16o km above the moon’s north pole and waited to see if the lost spacecraft crossed the radar beam. Chandrayaan-1 was predicted to complete one orbit around the moon every two hours and 8 minutes. Something that had a radar signature of a small spacecraft did cross the beam twice during four hours of observations, and the timings between cahndrayan matched the time it would take Chandrayaan-1 to complete one orbit and return to the same position above the moon’s pole.
This information was then used to update the orbital predictions for Chandrayaan Some of the follow-up observations were done with chandryaan Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, which has the most powerful astronomical radar system on Earth. The rediscovery of the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft moon orbit in July using the Goldstone and Greenbank antennas image credit: Working chsndrayan, the large radar antennas at Goldstone, Arecibo and Green Bank demonstrated that they can detect and track even small spacecraft in lunar orbit.
Ground-based radars could possibly play a part in future robotic and human missions to the moon, both for a collisional hazard assessment tool and as a safety mechanism for spacecraft that encounter navigation or communication issues. Chandrayaan-1, the polar Lunar orbiter mission of ISRO Indian Space Research Organizationsuccessfully carried out study of Moon’s environment and surface processes for a period of about nine months during — The results obtained by the mission established i A tenuous but active hydrosphere ii Volcanically active and geologically dynamic Moon and iii Chsndrayan melting of Moon’s surface regions and formation of magma ocean early in the history of Moon.
Chandrayaan-1 was equipped with a dozen instruments, including an impact probe, which housed three additional instruments. The results obtained by four instruments viz.
These data establish that Moon has a dynamic and probably still active interior, in contrast to the generally accepted concept of dormant and quiet Moon. The discovery of Mg spinel anorthosites and finding of kilometer sized crystalline anorthosite exposures by M 3 support the formation of global magma ocean on Moon and differentiation early in its evolutionary history. Furthermore, X-ray Spectrometer data showed anorthositic terrain with composition, high in Al, poor in Ca and low in Mg, Fe and Ti in a nearside southern highland region.
This mission provided excellent chandrqyan for multilateral international chxndrayan and collaboration in instrumentation and observation in which a dozen countries participated and contributed to the success of the mission. An overview of the Chandrayaan-1 mission in Scientists have detected magmatic water — water that originates chanrayan deep within the Moon’s interior — on the surface of the Moon.
Spectroscopic data from the M 3 instrument were analyzed which showed that the chandryan peak of Bullialdus Crater is significantly enhanced in hydroxyl relative to its surroundings. It is concluded that the strong and localized hydroxyl absorption features are inconsistent with a surficial origin.
Chajdrayan, they are consistent with hydroxyl bound to magmatic minerals that were excavated from depth by the impact that formed Bullialdus Chansrayan. Furthermore, chandryaan of thorium concentration in the central peak using data from the Lunar Prospector orbiter indicate an enhancement in incompatible elements, in contrast to the compositions of water-bearing lunar samples.
The 1km high central peak of Bullialdus crater image credit: M 3 fully imaged the large impact chandeayan Bullialdus in The rocks in the central peak of the crater are of a type called norite that usually crystallizes when magma ascends but gets trapped underground instead of erupting at the surface as lava.
Bullialdus crater is not the only location where this rock type is found, but the exposure of these rocks combined with a generally low regional water abundance enabled us to quantify the amount of internal water in these rocks. The detection of internal water from orbit means scientists can begin to test some of the findings from sample studies in a broader context, including in regions that are far from where the Apollo sites are clustered on the near side of the moon.
For many years, researchers believed that the rocks from the moon were bone-dry and any water detected in the Apollo samples had to be contamination from Earth Ref.
Mini-SAR had imaged many of the permanently shadowed regions that exist at both poles of the moon. These dark areas are extremely cold and it has been hypothesized that volatile material, including water ice, could be present in quantity here.
The main science object of the Mini-SAR experiment was to map and characterize any deposits that exist. The Mini-SAR instrument found more than 40 small craters km in diameter with sub-surface water ice located at their base. The interior of these craters is in permanent sun shadow. Evidence of water activity on the moon image credit:
Beste Beschikbare Technieken (BBT) voor mestverwerking tweede editie,. Studie uitgevoerd door het Van der Mei, W. Afvalverbranding in Nederland. de verbranding van afval (de “richtlijn afvalverbranding”), PB L van BBT moet het kernbeginsel blijven inzake preventie/beperking van. BBT: Best Beschikbare Technieken (Best Available Techniques) BLA: Besluit luchtemissies afvalverbranding (Waste incineration atmospheric emissions.
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C Datasheet, C PDF, C Data sheet, C manual, C pdf, C, datenblatt, Electronics C, alldatasheet, free, datasheet. C Datasheet: NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor, C PDF VIEW Download Fairchild Semiconductor, C 1 page Datasheet PDF, Pinouts, Data. c datasheet, cross reference, circuit and application notes in pdf format.
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C to content Category: Fixes in OCR services. You datasehet use a current limiting resistor in c datasheet collector line of that BC, e. I created c datasheet schema attached and what is really strange to me is that the transistor NPN works if mounted at the contrary!
BC337-40 Datasheet, Equivalent, Cross Reference Search
C datasheet BC is a small signal transistor. Tomorrow I will try to increase datasheeet resistence to 1 Khom so the current is smaller and I can activate all 5 outputs. I will consider for sure the resistence.
Despite its listed freeware comodow 3d sound driver, the download has limitations and c datasheet trial period. C datasheet pdf — wanted C c pdf c datasheet pdf file c datasheet pdf up c datasheet pdf c datasheet pdf questions.
It seems to me it is very good idea. In this way placing the transistor C datasheet in the correct orientation it works! However my question is more related to the mounting direction of the NPN transistor.
Not suitable for c datasheet output currents. Absolutely with you it agree.
C Datasheet PDF – Fairchild Semiconductor
I did a quick test now and it seems working adding a resistance in the c of BC Everything about c datasheet program is obvious and easy. Il transistor riporta datashdet dagasheet Thanks Wawa for good hints. The datascheed I found on the web reported pin 3 as emiter, so connected to ground. The c datasheet buttons direct the program to collect relevant data, and list it in c -style display. Ho creato lo schema allegato. Most probably, because of high current in the collector it could not work and inverting Emitter and Collector probably it was working in c datasheet wrong area.
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Does it catasheet sense c datasheet you that maybe also considering your suggestions the circuit works but inverting Datasheeh with Emitter?
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The rights of prisoners of war depends on which country holds them. In this lesson, we will learn how the Supreme Court’s decision in ”Johnson v. Eisentrager”. [Source: U.S. Supreme Court JOHNSON v. EISENTRAGER, U.S. (); June 5, ; available on ]. Johnson, Secretary of Defense et al; Eisentrager alias Ehrhardt et al. Categories, War crimes. Keywords, detention, international armed conflict, jurisdiction, war.
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Respondents, who are nonresident enemy aliens, were captured in China by the United States Army and tried and convicted in China by an American military commission for violations of the laws of war committed in China prior to their capture. They were transported to the American-occupied part of Germany and imprisoned there in the custody of the Army. At no time were they within the territorial jurisdiction of any American civil court.
Claiming that their trial, conviction, and imprisonment violated Articles I and III, the Fifth Amendment, and other provisions of our Constitution, laws of the United States, and provisions of the Geneva Convention, they petitioned the District Court for the District of Columbia for a writ of habeas corpus directed to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, and several officers of the Army having directive power over their custodian.
A nonresident enemy alien has no access to our courts in wartime. Courts will entertain his plea for freedom from executive custody only to ascertain the existence of a state of war and. Once these jurisdictional facts have been determined, courts will not inquire into any other issue as to his internment.
These nonresident enemy aliens, captured and imprisoned abroad, have no right to a writ of habeas corpus in a court of the United States. Ex parte Quirin, U. The Constitution does not confer a right of personal security or an immunity from military trial and punishment upon an alien enemy engaged in the hostile service of a government at war with the United States.
The petition in this case alleges no fact showing lack of jurisdiction in the military authorities to accuse, try, and condemn these prisoners, or that they acted in excess of their lawful powers. Since there is no basis in this case for invoking federal judicial power, it is not necessary to decide where, if the case were otherwise, the petition should be filed. The District Court dismissed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus to inquire into the confinement of respondents by the United States Army in occupied Germany.
The Court of Appeals reversed. This Court granted certiorari. The ultimate question in this case is one of jurisdiction of civil courts of the United States vis-a -vis military authorities in dealing with enemy aliens overseas.
The issues come here in this way:. Twenty-one German nationals petitioned the District Court of the District of Columbia for writs of habeas corpus. They alleged that, prior to May 8,they were in service of German armed forces in China. They amended to allege that their employment there was by civilian agencies of the German Government. Their exact affiliation is disputed, and, for our purposes, immaterial.
On May 8,the German High Command. These prisoners have been convicted of violating laws of war by engaging in, permitting, or ordering continued military activity against the United States after surrender of Germany and before surrender of Japan. Their hostile operations consisted principally of collecting and furnishing intelligence concerning American forces and their movements to the Japanese armed forces.
They, with six others who were acquitted, were taken into custody by the United States Army after the Japanese surrender, and were tried and convicted by a Military Commission constituted by our Commanding General at Nanking by delegation from the Commanding General, United States Forces, China Theater, pursuant to authority specifically granted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States.
The Commission sat in China, with express consent of the Chinese Government. The proceeding was conducted wholly under American auspices, and involved no international participation.
After conviction, the sentences were duly reviewed and, with immaterial modification, approved by military reviewing authority. The prisoners were repatriated to Germany to serve their sentences. He could not be reached by process eisentragger the District Court. The petition alleges, and respondents denied, that the jailer is subject to their direction.
The Court of Appeals assumed, and we do likewise, that, while prisoners are. The petition prays an order that the prisoners be produced before the District Court, that it may inquire into their confinement and order them discharged from johnxon offenses and confinement. It is claimed that their trial, conviction, and imprisonment violate Articles I and III of the Constitution, and the Fifth Amendment thereto, and other provisions of the Constitution and eisejtrager of the United States and provisions of the Geneva Convention governing treatment of prisoners of war.
A rule to show cause issued, to which the United States made return. Thereupon the petition was dismissed on authority of Ahrens v. Vx Court of Appeals reversed and, reinstating the petition, remanded for further proceedings. It concluded that any person, including an enemy alien, deprived of his liberty anywhere under any purported authority of the United States is entitled to the writ if he can show that extension to his cases of any constitutional rights or limitations would show his imprisonment illegal; that, although no statutory jurisdiction eisenrager such cases is given, courts must be held to possess it as part of the judicial power of the United States; that, where deprivation of liberty by an official act occurs outside the territorial jurisdiction of any District Court, the petition will lie in the District Court which has territorial jurisdiction over officials who have directive power over the immediate jailer.
The obvious importance of these holdings to both judicial administration and military operations impelled us to grant eisentrwger. The case is before us only on issues of law. The writ of habeas corpus must be granted “unless it appears from the application” that the applicants are not entitled to it.
We are cited to no instance where a court, in this or any other country where the writ is known, has issued it on behalf of an alien enemy who at no relevant time and in no stage of his captivity has been within its territorial jurisdiction. Nothing in the text of the Constitution extends such a right, nor does anything in our statutes.
Absence of support from legislative or juridical sources is implicit in the statement of the court below that “The answers stem directly from fundamentals. They cannot be found by casual reference to statutes or cases.
Modern American law has come a long way since the time when outbreak of war made every enemy national. But even by the most magnanimous view, our law does not abolish inherent distinctions recognized throughout the civilized world between citizens and aliens, nor between aliens of friendly and of enemy allegiance, [ Footnote 2 ] nor between resident enemy aliens who have submitted themselves to our laws and nonresident enemy aliens who at all times have remained with, and adhered to, enemy governments.
With the citizen we are now little concerned, except to set his case apart as untouched by this decision and to take measure of the difference between his status and that of all categories of aliens. Citizenship as a head of jurisdiction and a ground of protection was old when Paul invoked it in his appeal to Caesar. The years have not destroyed nor diminished the importance of citizenship, nor have they sapped the vitality of a citizen’s claims upon his government for protection. If a person’s claim to United States citizenship is denied by any official, Congress has directed our courts to entertain his action to declare him to be a citizen “regardless of whether he is within the United States or abroad.
This Court long ago extended habeas corpus to one seeking admission to the country to assure fair hearing of his claims to citizenship, Chin Yow v. United States, U.
When any citizen is deprived of his liberty by any foreign government, it is made the duty of the President to demand the reasons and, if the detention appears wrongful, to use means not amounting to acts of war to effectuate his release. The alien, to whom the United States has been traditionally hospitable, has been accorded a generous and ascending scale of rights as he increases his identity with our society. Mere lawful presence in the country creates an implied assurance of safe conduct and gives him certain rights; they become more extensive and secure when he makes preliminary declaration of intention to become a citizen, and they expand to those of full citizenship upon naturalization.
During his probationary residence. The Japanese Immigrant Case, U. And, at least sincewe have extended to the person and property of resident aliens important constitutional guaranties — such as the due process of law of the Fourteenth Amendment. But, in extending constitutional protections beyond the citizenry, the Court has been at pains to point out that it was the alien’s presence within its territorial jurisdiction that gave the Judiciary power to act.
johnsonn In the pioneer case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins, the Court said of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since most gs involving aliens afford this ground of jurisdiction, and the civil and property rights of immigrants or transients of foreign nationality so nearly approach equivalence to those of citizens, courts in peace time have little occasion to inquire whether litigants before them are alien or citizen. It is war that exposes the relative vulnerability of the alien’s status.
The security and protection enjoyed while the nation of his allegiance remains in amity with the United States are greatly impaired when his nation takes up arms against us. While his lot is far more humane. But disabilities this country lays upon the alien who becomes also an enemy are imposed temporarily as an incident of war, and not as an incident of alienage. Judge Cardozo commented concerning this distinction: American doctrine as to effect of war upon the status of johndon of belligerents took permanent shape following our first foreign war.
ICD – Johnson v. Eisentrager – Asser Institute
Chancellor Kent, after considering the leading authorities of his time, declared the law to be that “. If this was ever something of a fiction, it is one validated by the actualities of johnzon total warfare.
Conscription, compulsory service and measures to mobilize every human and material resource and to utilize nationals — wherever they may be — in arms, intrigue and sabotage, attest the prophetic realism of what once may have seemed a doctrinaire and artificial principle.
With confirmation of recent history, we may reiterate this Court’s earlier jhonson that, in war. The Rapid, 8 Cranch12 U. See also White v. And this without regard to his individual sentiments or disposition. The Benito Estenger, U. The johmson enemy is bound by an allegiance which commits him to lose no opportunity to forward the cause of our enemy; hence the United States, assuming him to be faithful to his allegiance.
It therefore takes measures to disable him from commission of hostile acts imputed as his intention because they are a duty to his sovereign. The United States does not invoke this enemy allegiance only for its own interest, but respects it also when to the enemy’s advantage. In World War I, our conscription act did not subject the alien enemy to compulsory military service. The Selective Service Act of62 Stat. Thus, the alien enemy status carries important immunities, as well as disadvantages.
The United States does not ask him to violate his allegiance or to commit treason toward his own country for the sake of ours. This also is the doctrine and the practice of other states comprising our Western Civilization. The essential pattern for seasonable Executive constraint of enemy aliens, not on the basis of individual prepossessions for their native land, but on the basis of political and legal relations to the enemy government, was laid down in the eisentragre earliest days of the Republic and has endured to this day.
It was established by the Alien Enemy Act of And it is to be noted that, while the Alien and Sedition Acts of that year provoked a reaction which helped sweep the party of Mr. Jefferson into power inand though his party proceeded to undo what was regarded as the mischievous legislation of the Federalists. This is in keeping with the practices of the most enlightened of nations, and has resulted in treatment of alien enemies more considerate than that.
This statute was eisentrxger or suffered to continue by men who helped found the Republic and formulate the Bill of Rights, and although it obviously denies enemy aliens the constitutional immunities of citizens, it seems not then to have been supposed that a nation’s obligations to its foes could ever be put on a parity with those to its defenders.
United States, Johnson v. Eisentrager
The resident enemy alien is constitutionally subject to summary arrest, internment, and deportation whenever a “declared war” exists. Courts will entertain his plea for freedom from Executive custody only to ascertain the existence of a state of war and whether he is an alien eisentrwger and so subject to the Alien Enemy Act.
Once these jurisdictional elements have been determined, courts will not inquire into any other issue as to his internment. The standing of the enemy alien to maintain any action in the courts of the United States has been often challenged, and sometimes denied.
The general statement was early made on jounson authority of Kent and Story “[t]hat they have no power to sue in the public courts of the enemy nation.
Our rule of generous access to the resident enemy alien was first laid down by Chancellor Kent inwhen, squarely faced with the plea that an alien enemy could not sue upon a debt contracted before the War ofhe reviewed the authorities to that time and broadly declared that.
A contrary doctrine would be repugnant to sound policy, no less sv to justice and humanity. A unanimous Court eisenteager clarified both the privilege of access to our courts and the limitations upon it.
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Author Opitz, Martin, Other Authors Braune, Theodor Wilhelm. Series Neudrucke deutscher Literaturwerke ; 8 Subjects German poetry — 17th century.
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Įdomiausias „Metų” veikėjas. Jis yra visiems žinomas, visų mėgstamas, sugebantis visiems įtikti kaimo seniūnas. Tarpininkas tarp būrų ir ponų. Kristijonas Donelaitis was a Prussian Lithuanian poet and Lutheran pastor. He lived and worked in Lithuania Minor, a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia, that had a sizable Lithuanian-speaking minority. He wrote the first classic Lithuanian language poem, The Seasons (Lithuanian: Metai). Kristijonas Donelaitis’ Metai in der Tradi- tion nationaler Epen in Europa / Kristijono Donelaičio Metai. Europos nacionalinių epų tradicijoje.
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He lived and worked in Lithuania Minora territory in the Kingdom of Prussiathat had a sizable Lithuanian-speaking minority. He wrote the first classic Lithuanian language poem, The Seasons Lithuanian: Metaiwhich became one of the principal works of Lithuanian poetry.
Donelaitis was born at Lasdinehlen estate near GumbinnenEast Prussia. His parents were free peasants who owned the land that they cultivated. His father died inleaving seven children four sons and three daughters. Another brother, Michael, inherited the father’s farm. His third brother, Adam, became a blacksmith and innkeeper. For four years he studied Lutheran theology. His world view was shaped by the classical curriculum, required Lithuanian studies, and the Pietism movement.
After the school rector died, Donelaitis took over his position. Inhe passed the required examination to become a pastor in Tollmingkehmen.
Metai / The Seasons – Kristijonas Donelaitis
Donelaitis lived in Tollmingkehmen from until his death in At the time, the parish of Tollmingkehmen had around 30 villages with around 3, residents. Inhe worked to restore the rectoryand built a new brick church in After the war he rebuilt a burned school and sponsored construction of a shelter to widows. His hobbies included building thermometers and barometers, and constructing pianos and clavichords.
None of Donelaitis’s works were published during his lifetime.
His major work, The Seasonswas titled by Rheza. It consisted of four idyllstotaling 2, hexameters. Only two original idylls survive. The other two were destroyed during the Napoleonic Wars.
Kristijonas Donelaitis – Wikipedia
InRheza also published the fables. A fuller publication of The Seasons was prepared by August Schleicher inbut this edition was criticized by Georg Donelaltis.
Nesselmannwho prepared an edition in Donelaitis and his works are considered to be an important part of Lithuanian culture, which also led to creation of literature and music works based on Donelaitis’s life and his poem The Seasons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Retrieved 17 February The Baltic States, years of dependence, — University of California Press.
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