: The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra – Last and most impressive teachings of the Buddha about Reality and the True Self (): Dr. Mahayana MAHAPARINIRVANA SUTRA – Kindle edition by Tony Page, Kosho Yamamoto. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. It is therefore generally referred to by its full Sanskrit title, Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Mahā-sūtra or more commonly simply the “Nirvana.

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We would also appreciate your feedback on Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia. Please write feedback here Here you can read media articles about the Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia which have been published all over the world. It shares its title with another well-known Buddhist scripturethe Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali Canon but is quite different in form and content.

The Nirvana Sutra mentions some of the well-known episodes in the final months of mahhayana life of the Buddha. The sutra uses these narratives as a springboard for the expression of Mahayana ideals. Its main teachings centre on the eternity of the Buddhathe reality of the True Selfand the presence of the Buddha-dhatu Buddha Nature in all beings.

Though not a mahaparinirvxna on this text, Paul Williams opines that as Mahayana sutrait is of rather late date after the 2nd century CE. In contrast to this viewspecialist scholars believe that the compilation of the core portion corresponding to the Faxian and Tibetan translations must have occurred at an earlier date, during or prior to the 2nd century CE, based internal evidence and on Chinese canonical catalogs.

The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra

Likewise, the Buddhist scholar and mahaparimirvana of the Tibetan version of the sutraStephen Hodgespeculates that it could well date from around CE to CE. Standard studies of the Buddha ‘s life use the Mahaparinibbana Sutta as the principal source of reference.

He suggests that an expanded version of this core text was then developed and would have comprised chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 of the Faxian and Tibetan versions, though it is believed that in their present state there is a degree of editorial addition in them from the later phases of development.

Sasakiin a review of Shimodaconveys a key premise of Shimoda’s work, namely, that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism and the Nirvana Sutra are entwined. Hodge frames the versions and history of the Nirvana Sutra:. There also exists a secondary Chinese version in 36 juan of Dharmakshema ‘s translation, produced by polishing the style and adding new section headings and completed in CE.

It is also known from Chinese catalogues of translations that at least two other Chinese translations were done, slightly earlier than Faxianbut these are no longer extant. Though a complete version of the entire text in Sanskrit has not yet been discovered, some fragments of original Sanskrit versions have been discovered in [[Wikipedia: The text of the Nirvana Sutra in the original Sanskrit has survived only in a number of fragments, which were discovered in [[Wikipedia: It does exist in Chinese and Tibetan versions of varying lengths.

Thus, there are four extant versions:. Sengyou quotes still earlier catalogues to corroborate this attribution. The idea that Faxian was involved in the translation only emerges in later catalogues, compiled several hundred years after the event. Chinese canonical records also mention that a now lost translation was made by the Chinese monk Zhimeng who studied in India from CE. According to Zhimeng ‘s own account, he also obtained his manuscript from the same layman in Pataliputra as Faxian did some years earlier.

This is stated to have formed the basis of the first ten juan of his translation, known to correspond overall in content to the six juan version and the Tibetan version.


The provenance and authenticity of the Sanskrit text, if such existed, mxhaparinirvana this part of his translation has been debated amongst scholars for decades, with many doubting that it sutraa a text of Indian origin. The chief reasons for this skepticism are these: The Chinese monk – translator Yijing travelled widely through Mahaparinirvanz and parts South East Asia over a twenty-five year period. For these reasonstextual scholars generally regard the authenticity of the latter portion as dubious: The Mahaparinirvana Sutra is a long and highly composite Mahayana scripture.

It has been highly influential in the development of Chinese Buddhismbecause of its statements on Buddha-nature and the True Selfwhich it seemed to reify. It presents itself as providing the correct understanding of earlier Buddhist teachingscontroverting the familiar Buddhist dictum stra “all dharmas phenomena are non-Self “.

Instead of emptiness and non-self it emphasizes the existence of a True Self. The full seeing of the Buddha-nature ushers in Liberation from all sufferingand effects final deliverance mahayxna the realm of Great Nirvana maha-nirvana.

This ” True Self ” or “Great Self ” of the nirvanic realm is said to be sovereign, to be attained on the morning of Buddhahhoodand to pervade all places like space. The Buddhain the Fa-xian version of the text, points out that worldly beings who misapprehend the authentic Buddhist Doctrine. Paul Williams claims it refers to mahaparinirvaan Buddha using the term ” Self ” in order to win over non- Buddhist ascetics. In the Dharmakshema version the Buddha declares that.

In truth there is Self Atman in all dharmas [which is] indestructible like a diamond. This self can assume all manner of formsincluding those of the gods Shiva and Vishnu. It is eternalunchangingblissfulpureinviolate and deathless:. Earlier the Buddha taught non-Self to meet the needs of the occasion. In the Nirvana Sutra he teaches the truth of the Selfwhich remains once the non-Self is done away with:.

What the Buddha says mahapatinirvana is that he spoke thus to meet the occasion. But now the thought is established [of non-Selfhe means to say what is true, which is about the inner content of mahaparinirvanaa itself If there is no more any non-Selfwhat there exists must be the Self.

The tathagatagarbha is the same as Thusness tathata.

This bespeaks a Buddha Body that exists in a state of mahqparinirvana. The attitude of approach here is ontologicalreligiouspersonal, and therefore, practical The True Self is not the conditioned and transitory ” self “, but the Self -which-signifies- Buddha: This Self of the Buddha is the source of ever-enduring life.

Any idea that the Buddha who is the immortal Self is impermanent is vigorously rejected by the Buddha in this sutraand those who teach otherwise are severely criticised. In contrast, meditating upon the eternality of the Buddha is said to bring happiness and protection from rebirth in evil realms. The eternal being of the Buddha should be likened – the sutra says – to indelible letters carved upon stone. Furthermore, protecting and promoting this mahaparonirvana of the Buddha ‘s eternity is said to bring innumerable and inconceivable blessings to its votaries.

The Buddha is likened to a great sea, whose expanse and longevity cannot be measured:. All the great rivers of life of all peopleof the godsthe earth and the sky drain into the Tathagata ‘s sea of life. Hence, the length of life of the Tathagata is uncountable. What is the Tathagata Buddha … He is one who is eternal and unchanging. He is Thusness [ tathata ], which is both phenomenon and noumenonput together. Here, the carnal notion of man is sublimated and explained from the macrocosmic standpoint of existence of all and all.

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And this Dharmakaya is at once Wisdom and Emancipation [ moksha ]. In this ontological enlargement of the concept of existence of the Buddha Body buddhakayathis sutra and, consequently, Mahayanadiffers from the Buddha of Primitive Buddhism … And what is the Dharmakaya?

It is a body founded on Dharma. And what is Dharma? It mahajana dharmata Thusness — the true nature of all things], which is eternal and which changes not …Thus, there comes about the equation of: The highest form of Nirvana — Mahaparinirvana —is also discussed in very positive, ” cataphatic ” terms in the Mahaparinirvzna Sutra. Mahaparinirvana is characterized as being that which is.

Eternal mahauanaBlissful sukhathe Self atman and Pure subha. This state or sphere visaya of ultimate awareness and Knowing jnana is said to be accessible only to those who have become fully awakened Buddhas.

Even 10th-level Bodhisattvas i. The Buddha on his eternal and blissful ultimate nature as he stands on the brink of physical death:. If you perceive things truly, you will become free from attachmentseparated from them, you will indeed be liberated. I have well crossed the watery waste of existence. I abide in blisshaving transcended sufferingtherefore I am devoid of unending desireI have eliminated attachment and gained Liberation moksha.

There is no old agesickness or death for me, my life is forever without end.

Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra

I proceed burning bright like a flame. You must not think that I shall cease to exist. Consider the Tathagata [i. Buddha to be like Mount Sumeru: On the eternal nature of the Buddha – Tathagata:.

The Buddha – Tathagatas are not eternally extinguished in Nirvana like the heat of an iron ball that is mmahaparinirvana extinguished when autra into water. Moreover, it is thus: In that way, when the Tathagata has completely extinguished the fire of the mental afflictions that have been accumulated over countless aeonsthe nature of the diamond Tathagata permanently endures – not transforming and not diminishing.

On his teaching of ” non-Self ” the ” worldly self “, which ultimately does not exist eternallybut obscures the True Self and the tathagata-garbha:. When I have taught that the tathagata-garbha is emptyfools meditatively cultivate [the notion] that it is extinction ucchedasubject to destruction and imperfect.

The wise know that it is [actually] unchangingstable and eternal. In contrast to the illusoryconditionedworldly self mahapariirvana, the Self of the Buddha is real and enduring:.

The Tathagata ‘s Body is not causally conditioned.

The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana sutra

Because it is not causally conditionedit is said to have the Self ; if it has the Selfthen it is also EternalBlissful and Pure. On the True Self:. The Tathagata also teaches, for the sake of all beingsthat, truly, there is the Self in all phenomena.

The Nirvana Sutra is mahapaginirvana as inferior to the Lotus Sutra however, based on the passage in the Nirvana Sutra that reads:. When this sutra was preached. Thus, the autumn harvest was over and the crop had been stored away for winter [when the Nirvana Sutra was expounded], and there was maayana left for it [but a few gleanings]. From Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia.

Sutrw from ” http: Buddhist Terms Mahaparinirvana Sutra. All articles of CBE. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in.