Authors: Jamshid Gharajedaghi. eBook ISBN: Paperback ISBN: Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann. Published Date: 29th June Jamshid Gharajedaghi, Managing Partner of INTERACT, has more than thirty-five years of experience with the development & practice of systems methodology. View Jamshid Gharajedaghi’s full profile to See who you know in common; Get introduced; Contact Jamshid Gharajedaghi directly. View Jamshid’s Full Profile.

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He is known for his work of systems thinking, managing complexity, and business architecture. Since he is managing director at the Interact, Institute for interactive design, and since Adjunct Professor of Systems thinking at the Villanova University School of Business. Gharajedaghi’s research interests has evolved from his “early training in information systems In the article “Mechanisms, organisms and social systems” Gharajedaghi and Ackoff argue, that gharajedagho is a fundamental flaw in the traditional way to think about social systems.

To think about anything requires an image or concept of it, a model. To think about a thing as complex as a social system most people use a model of something similar, simpler and more familiar.

Traditionally, two types of models have been used in efforts to acquire information, knowledge and understanding of social systems: But, in a world of accelerating change, increasing uncertainty and growing complexity, it is becoming apparent that these are inadequate as guides to decision and action. The growing number of social crises and dilemmas that we face should be clear evidence that something is fundamentally wrong with the way we think about social systems.

We then develop a third type of model, one we believe does not suffer from these inadequacies, a social system model which seeks to penetrate beyond the nature of machine and organisms to understand social systems in their own right.

Gharajedaghi present his work as third generation of systems thinking. In the first chapter of his book “Systems thinking” he explains his point of view:. The analytical approach has remained essentially intact for nearly four hundred years, but systems thinking has already gone through three distinct generations of change. The first generation of systems thinking operations research dealt with the challenge of interdependency in the context of mechanical deterministic systems.

The second generation of systems thinking cybernetics and open systems dealt with the dual challenges of interdependency and self-organization neg-entropy 4 in the context of living systems. The third generation of systems thinking design responds to the triple challenge of interdependency, self-organization, and choice in the context of sociocultural systems. In the s the information age was unfolding [9] changing the global market economy.

With the businesses adapting, the new concept of business architecture was presented as promising alternative. Gharajedaghi explained the context:.

In a global market economy with ever-increasing levels of disturbance, a viable business can no longer be locked into a single form or function. Success comes from a self-renewing capability to spontaneously create structures and functions that fit the moment. In fact, the ability gharqjedaghi continuously match the portfolio of internal competencies with the portfolio of emerging market opportunities is the foundation of the emerging concept of new business architecture According to Bodine and Hilty “important advances in this area borrowed from the operations discipline came in in the form of Michael Hammer and James Champy ‘s book Reengineering the Corporationwhich introduced tools for mapping and optimizing business activities jzmshid process modeling.

The Balanced Scorecard developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton at about the same time enabled the business to measure overall corporate success against goals on qualitative as well as quantitative dimensions. Villanova University — Villanova University is a private research university located in Radnor Township, jamsuid suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within the Archdiocese of Philadelphia in the United States. The university is a member of the Augustinian Secondary Education Association, in Octobertwo Augustinian gharajeeaghi from Saint Augustines Church in Philadelphia purchased the acre Belle Air estate in Radnor Township with the intention of starting a school.

The school, which was called the Augustinian College of Vilanova, however, the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of that burned Saint Augustines Church in Philadelphia caused financial difficulties gharajedghi the Augustinians, and the college was closed in February Gharajeadghi college reopened in and graduated its first class inin Marchthe governor of Pennsylvania incorporated the school and gave it the power to grant degrees.

Jamshid Gharajedaghi – WikiVisually

Inthe first masters degree was conferred on a student, inthe school closed again as the demand for priests in Philadelphia prevented adequate staffing, and the crisis of the Panic of strained the school financially. The school gharajedagh closed throughout the Civil War and reopened in September and its prep department later moved to Malvern, a town along the Main Line, and is still run by the order.

The School of Technology was established inina two-year pre-medical program was established to help students meet medical schools new requirements. This led to a four-year pre-medical program, jamahid B. Ina laywoman received a Villanova gharajedahi for the first time and it was not until the nursing school opened in that women permanently began attending Villanova full-time. Inthe College of Engineering admitted its first female student, Jqmshid University became fully coeducational in During World War II, Villanova was one of colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V Navy College Training Program which offered students a jamshjd to a Navy jamsyid, after World War II, Villanova expanded, returning veterans swelling enrollments and the faculty growing fourfold.

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Additional facilities were built, and inthe College of Nursing, Villanova achieved university status on November 18, Between and ,10 new buildings were built or bought on land adjacent to the campus, including Bartley, Mendel, during the s and s, Villanova worked to become a nationally recognized university.

The quality of faculty and students improved dramatically and international studies programs were introduced, additional residential and recreational facilities were constructed, and efforts to increase the endowment were undertaken.

In the s, jamsjid chairs were established in theology, philosophy, engineering, and business, scholarship funding was increased, and the curriculum expanded and improved. An extensive building campaign created facilities for the Colleges gharajedayhi Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Commerce, and Finance, as well as student residences on the south, inthe school also won the Mens NCAA basketball tournament, giving the school increased national exposure.

Augustine High School in San Diego, which was established in with teaching staff dispatched from Villanova, Villanova University sits on acres just 12 miles from Center City Philadelphia. Comprising a land area of 1, km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline.

The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region.

The empire collapsed in BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers.

During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution ofwhich established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world.

Its political system is based on the Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians.

As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory.

Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world overall, inthe private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus.

Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland inbillings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. InHenry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls inthe university relocated to its Berkeley location with male and 22 female students and held its first classes.

Inthe University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from tobythe American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.

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Jamshid Gharajedaghi

The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley induring the McCarthy era inthe Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, inthe University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus.

Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the s with the Free Speech Movement of and opposition to the Vietnam War.

In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest instudents and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants.

Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives. The company originated in as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed International Business Machines inIBM manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.

IBM is also a research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business for 24 consecutive years. IBM has continually shifted its business mix by exiting commoditizing markets and focusing on higher-value, also inIBM announced that it would go fabless, continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries.

They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards.

By most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, inIBMs tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. Inhe stepped down after almost 40 years at the company helm, inthe FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. A year later it moved its headquarters from New York City to Armonk.

Whartons MBA program is ranked No. Joseph Wharton, a native Philadelphian, was a leader in industrial metallurgy who built his fortune through the American Nickel Company and Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The school was renamed the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, inearly on, the Wharton School faculty was tightly connected to an influential group of businessmen, bankers and lawyers that made up the larger Philadelphia School of Political Economy.

The faculty incorporated social sciences into the Wharton curriculum, as the field of business was still under development, Albert S. Bolles, a lawyer, served as Whartons first professor, and the schools Industrial Research Unit was established in Wharton professor George W. Taylor is credited with founding the field of study known as industrial relations. He served in several capacities in the government, most notably as a mediator and arbitrator.

During his career, Taylor settled more than 2, strikes, Wharton professor Wroe Alderson is widely recognized as the most important marketing theorist of the twentieth century and the father of modern marketing. Wharton professor Solomon S. Huebner is known widely as the father of insurance education and he originated the concept of human life value, which became a standard method of calculating insurance value and need. The Wharton Schools first business professor was an attorney, Albert Bolles, at the time, there were no other business schools and no business professors could be recruited elsewhere.

Bolles, a lawyer by education and training, and business journalist by career, Bolles started his career as a lawyer in Connecticut in the second half of the 19th century. After resigning from his law firm, he started pursuing a new career in journalism and was promoted to the editor role of Bankers Magazine.

History of business architecture — The history of business architecture has its origins in the s. In the next decades business architecture has developed into a discipline of design of the business as a whole closely related to enterprise architecture.

The concept of architecture has been proposed as a blueprint of the enterprise, as business strategy. The concept of architecture has evolved over the years.

It was introduced in the s as architectural domains and as activity of business design, in the s the study and concept development of business architecture accelerated.

By business architecture has evolved into a common practice, the business architecture body of knowledge has been developed and is updated multiple times each year, and the interest from the academic world and from top management is growing. Business architecture has its roots in traditional cross-organizational design, john Zachman commented in this context, that a lot of material has been written about business architecture, going back to The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor.